The discovery of hyaluronic acid was proposed by Karl Meyer, the father of mucopolysaccharide chemistry, and they subsequently isolated this substance from the vitreous of cattle and named it hyalos.
Do you know the hyaluronic acid benefits and side effects?
The word hyalos comes from Greek, meaning glass, and refers to a transparent, glass-like appearance. Due to its high viscosity and high water retention (absorbs thousands of times the volume of water) and other effects, the initial commercial use appeared in the food processing industry (As a substitute for protein).
After decades of continuous research, it has been found that hyaluronic acid is like the essence of the body. It can lubricate joints, moisturizes and remove wrinkles, and interstitial filling. It has characteristics that are difficult to replace, so it has become the most aging anti-aging maintenance in the beauty industry. One of the saints.
Table of Contents
- What is hyaluronic acid?
- What are the benefits of hyaluronic acid?
- 1. Hyaluronic acid improves skin condition
- 2. Hyaluronic acid is beneficial for sinusitis
- 3. Hyaluronic acid is beneficial for dry eye
- 4. Hyaluronic acid benefits osteoarthritis
- 5. Hyaluronic acid is beneficial for gastroesophageal reflux
- 6. Hyaluronic acid benefits periodontitis
- 7. Hyaluronic acid is good for urinary tract infections
- 8. Beneficial for interstitial cystitis
- What are the side effects of hyaluronic acid?
- Safety precautions
- Recommended oral hyaluronic acid brand / where to buy?
What is hyaluronic acid?
Hyaluronic acid is one of the main elements in the extracellular matrix of vertebrate tissue cells and is a kind of mucopolysaccharide. It exists in almost all body fluids and tissues, such as skin, muscle, synovial fluid, vitreous body, and cartilage of the eye, and can combine with other molecules to produce a scaffolding effect and impart structural elasticity.
In addition, hyaluronic acid is also involved in several important physiological functions, such as regulating cell adhesion, cell motility, cell differentiation and proliferation, and providing mechanical properties for tissues.
With aging and external stimuli such as sunlight, ultraviolet rays, smoking, air pollution, etc., the amount of hyaluronic acid in the body will decrease year by year, resulting in skin dryness, wrinkles, joint damage, etc., resulting in a variety of supplements, such as subcutaneous injection, Smear or orally.
What are the benefits of hyaluronic acid?
1. Hyaluronic acid improves skin condition
The skin is a multifunctional organ with important defense functions. It is both a physical barrier to the external environment and immune defense against potentially pathogenic microorganisms.
However, the aging of organs begins when a person is born, and the skin is no exception. The skin is affected by internal (time) and external (environmental) aging, resulting in loss of function, wrinkles, loss of elasticity, relaxation, roughness, dryness, shrinking, and other phenomena.
Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies have pointed out that for patients with dry skin, the ingestion of hyaluronic acid can increase skin moisture.
Another double-blind, placebo-controlled study (a 12-week, 60 adults with crow’s feet phenomenon) pointed out that oral hyaluronic acid can improve wrinkles and skin conditions (such as gloss and softness).
In addition, topical hyaluronic acid can also increase skin moisture content and elasticity, thereby improving wrinkle depth.
2. Hyaluronic acid is beneficial for sinusitis
Rhinosinusitis is a broad term covering a variety of diseases, including acute and chronic sinusitis, and nasal polyposis. There are many subtypes and different etiologies. The severity and clinical manifestations vary greatly, and there is a lack of simple and accurate office detection methods.
Acute sinusitis is defined as inflammation of the nose and paranasal sinuses, which is characterized by two or more of the following symptoms: blockage, congestion, facial pain, decreased or lost sense of smell, and lasts less than 12 weeks.
Chronic sinusitis is defined as nasal congestion or nasal congestion lasting more than 12 weeks and is accompanied by one of the following three symptoms: facial pain or pressure, colorless snot or rhinorrhea, reduction or loss of smell.
Allergic patients, especially those with IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis, have a higher incidence of sinusitis than the general population (about 25%-50%).
A systematic review (including 5 studies) pointed out that topical hyaluronic acid atomization therapy minimizes the symptoms of sinusitis because it avoids systemic side effects and increases local drug activity, and prevents it by significantly improving the quality of life. Re-treatment.
*Conclusion: For acute and chronic sinusitis, local hyaluronic acid atomization therapy may be helpful for improving symptoms, but limited by the small sample size, more large-scale trials are still needed to corroborate.
3. Hyaluronic acid is beneficial for dry eye
Dry eye disease is a multifactorial disease caused by tears and ocular surface, which can cause symptoms such as discomfort, visual impairment, and tear film instability, and may cause damage to the surface of the eye. It is the most common eye One of the diseases, about 25% of patients who go to the ophthalmology clinic report symptoms of dry eye.
Due to the unstable tear film of patients with dry eye syndrome, they are unable to maintain their structure and function. The related discomfort symptoms include burning sensation, tingling sensation, grit sensation, foreign body sensation, tearing, eye fatigue, dryness, etc. Daily activities, social and physical functions, and work efficiency have adverse effects.
A prospective randomized controlled trial (a 3-month, 54 dry eye patients), divided into two groups, the control group used 0.15% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic drops, the study group used hyaluronic acid ophthalmic drops and oral hyaluronic acid Capsule (Daily dose 240 mg).
The results of the study found that the ocular surface disease index, tear break up time, and corneal fluorescein staining of the study group was significantly better than the control group.
*Conclusion: For dry eye, oral and topical use of hyaluronic acid may help improve corneal epithelial wound healing and related dry eye symptoms, but it is limited to a small number of samples and more research is needed to corroborate it.
4. Hyaluronic acid benefits osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease, with a prevalence rate of 33% over 60 years old to as high as 43.7% over 80 years old, with cartilage loss, subchondral bone changes, synovitis and meniscus degeneration feature.
Osteoarthritis is likely to lead to a decline in quality of life and reduced participation in social activities. In addition to aging factors, common risk factors for osteoarthritis include obesity, previous joint damage, genetic factors, and anatomical factors such as joint morphology and alignment. Other factors still exist: Gender, race, and nutritional factors (vitamin D deficiency).
A randomized, double-blind controlled study (targeting 60 patients with knee arthritis over the age of 50) found that compared to placebo, oral hyaluronic acid (200 mg daily for 12 months) and intensive quadriceps training, there are Helps to improve the knee osteoarthritis symptoms of the subjects (such as knee pain, stiffness, quality of life, activity, etc., as measured by the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measures/Japanese Osteoarthritis Scale).
However, the same study also pointed out that the improvement effect is only significant for patients under 70 years of age, and there is no obvious effect over 70 years of age, which may be related to the difference in cell metabolism.
*Conclusion: Oral hyaluronic acid may have a positive effect on the improvement of knee osteoarthritis symptoms, but due to factors such as small sample size and short execution period, more research is still needed to corroborate.
5. Hyaluronic acid is beneficial for gastroesophageal reflux
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is defined as symptoms or mucosal damage caused by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents to the esophagus or other parts and into the mouth (including the larynx) or lungs.
Typical symptoms include heartburn and acid reflux, and atypical symptoms such as stomach pain, indigestion, nausea, bloating, and hiccups.
According to whether there is esophageal mucosal damage during endoscopy, gastroesophageal reflux disease can be classified as non-erosive reflux disease (ero-reflux disease) or erosive reflux disease (erosive reflux disease).
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (a 14-day study of 20 patients with non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease who received PPIs) indicated that an oral fixed combination of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate can significantly improve gastroesophageal return Symptoms related to flow diseases, such as heartburn, acid regurgitation.
In addition, the data on the speed of action and total disappearance of symptoms of subjects taking hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate was better than the placebo.
*Conclusion: For patients with non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease who have poor drug control response, the use of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate can help improve symptoms quickly, but limited by the small sample size, more research is still needed to corroborate.
6. Hyaluronic acid benefits periodontitis
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of tooth-supporting tissues caused by specific microbiota, resulting in the gradual destruction of periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone, the formation of periodontal pockets, and atrophy of the gums, affecting approximately 20% to 50% of the world’s population.
The relationship between periodontal infection and the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, reproductive system, respiratory system, and other organ systems makes it a complex multi-phase disease.
A randomized trial (12-week period, 33 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis) pointed out that the use of hyaluronan gel after calculus removal can significantly improve bleeding on probing, Depth of the gingival sulcus (Pocket Probing Depth) and loss of periodontal attachment (clinical attachment level).
7. Hyaluronic acid is good for urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infections are a common infectious disease, second only to respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that at least one-third of women will experience a urinary tract infection requiring antibiotic treatment before the age of 24.
In addition, there will be a 25-35% recurrence rate within 3-6 months after the initial urinary tract infection, which is unpredictable.
A double-blind controlled study (targeting 57 women with recurrent urinary tract infections) found that intravesical infusion of hyaluronic acid/hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate can help reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections (up to 86.6%), compared with 9.6% in the placebo group (questionnaire survey showed significant improvement in the quality of life and overall symptoms).
8. Beneficial for interstitial cystitis
Interstitial cystitis (interstitial cystitis) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the urinary system. The main symptoms are urgency, frequent urination, pain in the bladder, and pelvis, and it lasts for more than 6 months. The number of women diagnosed with this disease is higher than that of men. The prevalence rate of women is about 2.71%, compared with 1.22% of men.
The pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood. The possible causes include autoimmune diseases, hidden infections, toxic substances in the urine, and defects in the bladder mucosa.
Numerous evidence indicates that the defect of the bladder mucosa layer (the damaged mucopolysaccharide layer) causes the epithelial cells to directly contact with the pathogenic bacteria or factors in the urine, and triggers infection is the main factor of the disease.
Because hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate are the main constituent molecules in the mucosal layer, they are often used in treatment.
A study (non-double-blind and controlled) found that intravesical hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate can help improve various symptoms of interstitial cystitis and the overall evaluation score, such as the urinary urine score decreased from 5.6 to 3.2, the average urine output Increased from 129.7 ml to 162 ml. In addition, the interstitial cystitis problem index decreased from 25.7 to 20.3, and the frequency of compressive pain decreased from 14 to 11.6.
What are the side effects of hyaluronic acid?
Hyaluronic acid is generally regarded as a safe ingredient and has high human tolerance. Whether it is an external application or oral lozenges, it needs to be used under medical evaluation after medical injection (perfusion).
The reported oral side effects include stomach upset, gastroesophageal reflux, and loss of appetite.
The source of hyaluronic acid is divided into the animal (chicken comb-derived) and microbial fermentation. If it is animal, it must be noted that it may cause allergies, and related products may be doped with other ingredients. Please note the label before use.
1. Do not use for pregnant women, nursing mothers, children, patients with abnormal liver and kidney functions, or major diseases (the relevant safety is unknown).
2. Do not use those with abnormal blood coagulation function or taking anticoagulants (may increase the risk of bleeding).
3. People with cancer or a history of cancer should avoid supplementing with hyaluronic acid because some studies believe that hyaluronic acid may promote cancer cell growth.
4. People who have any unusual allergic reactions to medicines, foods, pigments, preservatives, or animal products should be used with caution.
5. Medical injections need to be performed by a qualified physician. The most common adverse reactions are related to injections. Skin bleeding, burning, muscle pain, stiffness, headache, dizziness, nausea, itching, sensitivity, pain, swelling, redness, and stasis may occur Injuries, chills, tenderness, infection, lumps, numbness, rashes, redness, tingling, tenderness, ulcers, or fever at the injection site will resolve on their own within a few weeks. In addition, if the raw material is animal, you must perform an allergy test to reduce possible allergic reactions.
Recommended oral hyaluronic acid brand / where to buy?
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