Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) because of its ubiquitous properties, also known as ubiquinone, participate in energy generation, but also can fight free radicals, accelerate metabolism, slow down aging, can be called rejuvenating nutrients.
Do you know the benefits of coenzyme q10 supplements? Are there any side effects?
Table of Contents
- What is Coenzyme Q10?
- What are their characteristics?
- What are the food sources?
- What are the benefits?
- 1. Coenzyme Q10 improves physical activity-related fatigue
- 2. Coenzyme Q10 benefits vascular endothelial function
- 3. Coenzyme Q10 can help lose weight
- 4. Coenzyme Q10 improves disease-related fatigue
- 5. Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for blood sugar control
- 6. Coenzyme Q10 is good for migraine
- 7. Coenzyme Q10 beneficial sarcopenia
- 8. Coenzyme Q10 improves inflammation index
- 9. Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for heart failure
- 10. Coenzyme Q10 benefits male infertility
- 11. Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for hypertension
- 12. Coenzyme Q10 benefits polycystic ovary syndrome
- 13. Coenzyme Q10 improves Parkinson’s disease
- Are there any side effects?
- Safety Precautions
- How to take Coenzyme Q10? What is the dosage?
- What dosage forms of coenzyme Q10?
- Where to buy the most people recommended high-quality coenzyme Q10?
What is Coenzyme Q10?
Coenzyme Q10 (also known as CoQ10) is a benzoquinone compound (structure similar to vitamin K), first isolated from bovine heart mitochondria in 1957 by Frederick Crane of Wisconsin, USA. The identification and synthesis of the chemical structures were completed in 1958.
Coenzyme Q is a naturally occurring coenzyme that exists in tissues and cells of all species and is mainly located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is composed of a benzoquinone ring and a hydrophobic isoprene chain (isoprenoid chain).
The length of the side chain varies depending on the species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mainly CoQ6). In human mitochondria, coenzyme Q mainly contains 10 isoprenyl groups, so it is named Coenzyme Q10.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is mainly synthesized in the mitochondrial inner membrane, a small part is obtained through diet.
What are their characteristics?
Coenzyme Q10 is an important mediator of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. It is mainly involved in the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP provides energy for muscle contraction and other important cellular functions, so it can affect all cells, especially those with high energy requirements, such as Heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas and adrenal glands are extremely important for health.
When it is reduced, Coenzyme Q10 is also the most important lipid antioxidant in the human body, which can reduce free radical production and prevent the oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA.
In addition, Coenzyme Q10 can inhibit inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, NF-κB, and affect the expression of hundreds of genes related to metabolism and transport.
What are the food sources?
Coenzyme Q10 is rich in animal sources, including beef, poultry, liver, eggs, fatty fish (such as herring, salmon, salmon, and tuna).
Plant sources include nuts, oranges, strawberries, spinach, cauliflower, broccoli, lentils, soybeans, etc.
The study pointed out that no matter whether it is taken from food or health products, the absorption rate of the two is actually not much different.
What are the benefits?
1. Coenzyme Q10 improves physical activity-related fatigue
Fatigue is a common symptom in daily life. It is usually described as a lack of vitality, decreased endurance, and long recovery time after physical activity (regardless of mental or physical fatigue).
Fatigue affects everyone, regardless of their skills, knowledge, and training status.
In the workplace, the most important effects of fatigue include decreased work motivation, increased reaction time, decreased alertness, inattention, poor psychometric coordination, memory and information processing problems, and poor judgment.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study (8 days, 17 healthy subjects) pointed out that after fatigue-induced physical tasks, oral coenzyme Q10 helps improve the maximum rate of change.
In addition, subjects who were given Coenzyme Q10 (300 mg dose) had lower subjective fatigue and recovery periods than the placebo group.
*Conclusion: Oral Coenzyme Q10 may improve fatigue and physical performance related to physical activity.
2. Coenzyme Q10 benefits vascular endothelial function
The vascular endothelium is an active monolayer of cells that covers the lumen of the blood vessel, separating the blood vessel wall from the circulatory blood. It is also a highly selective barrier and metabolically active organ. It is useful for hemostasis, thrombosis, and local blood vessels. The regulation of tension and redox balance and the coordination of acute and chronic inflammatory reactions in the arterial wall is of great significance.
There is increasing evidence that endothelial cell dysfunction is the first recognizable sign of the development of atherosclerosis and that it existed well before the onset of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
A meta-analysis of literature (including 5 randomized controlled trials, a total of 194 participants) pointed out that coenzyme Q10 can significantly improve endothelial function through flow-mediated dilation.
However, the fixed-effect model for assessing endothelial function through nitrate-mediated dilatation of arterial expansion has not been significantly improved.
*Conclusion: The supplementation of Coenzyme Q10 may have a positive effect on the improvement of vascular endothelial function, but whether it can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease remains to be confirmed.
3. Coenzyme Q10 can help lose weight
Obesity is the abnormal accumulation of body fat (usually 20% higher than normal ideal weight). Due to the psychological and social stigma associated with overweight and obesity, the affected people are also vulnerable to personal and work life. Discrimination, even inferiority, and depression.
In addition, depending on the degree, duration and distribution of overweight, overweight can gradually cause or exacerbate a variety of comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver, reproductive dysfunction, and abnormal breathing, Mental illness, and even increase the risk of certain cancers.
A systematic literature review and meta-analysis (including 17 randomized controlled clinical trials) pointed out that supplemental coenzyme Q10 supplemented body weight (weighted mean difference WMD: 0.28 kg) and body mass index (weighted mean difference WMD:- 0.03) no significant reduction.
In addition, Subgroup analysis showed that the dose of Q10 and the duration of the trial had no effect on the results of the supplement.
*Conclusion: Up to now, there is no evidence to prove that supplementation of Coenzyme Q10 is helpful for weight loss, but due to the heterogeneity of the included studies, more studies are still needed to confirm its clinical benefits.
4. Coenzyme Q10 improves disease-related fatigue
Fatigue is one of the most common complaints in physician consultations. It is characterized by decreased workability or motivation, usually accompanied by feelings of fatigue and drowsiness.
This type of fatigue is a non-specific symptom associated with many diseases, such as hypothyroidism, celiac disease, anemia, flu, heart failure, acute liver disease, cancer, diabetes, and sleep apnea.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (24 weeks, 236 breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy) indicated that oral coenzyme Q10 did not improve self-reported fatigue or quality of life assessment scores.
Another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (12 weeks, 48 patients with multiple sclerosis) pointed out that oral coenzyme Q10 (daily dose of 500 mg) can improve fatigue and depression.
*Conclusion: For the improvement of disease-related fatigue, the results of using Coenzyme Q10 are different, to be confirmed.
5. Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for blood sugar control
Thirty years ago, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was considered a rare disease, but in recent decades, Asia has experienced rapid economic development, urbanization, and changes in nutritional status, resulting in obesity and diabetes prevalence A large increase, accounting for about 60% of the global diabetes population.
Adults with diabetes have a 50% higher risk of dying from various causes than adults without diabetes. There are also risks of various complications (including accelerated development of the cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease, vision loss, and amputation).
A systematic literature review and meta-analysis (including 13 randomized controlled trials, a total of 765 patients with type 2 diabetes) pointed out that oral coenzyme Q10 can improve glycemic control (reducing glycated hemoglobin, fasting blood glucose) and blood lipids (reducing three Acid glyceride, elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol).
*Conclusion: For type 2 diabetes, oral coenzyme Q10 is positively helpful for blood sugar control, but it is limited by possible risk bias and heterogeneity, and more research is needed to corroborate.
6. Coenzyme Q10 is good for migraine
Migraine is the second most common headache, usually described as moderate to severe unilateral pain, with repeated throbbing or pulsation, usually lasting 4-72 hours, and may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, or Sensitive to light, sound or smell.
Before migraine attacks, about one-third of patients can feel the aura, the most common is a visual aura, in the form of jagged lines or scattered dark spots (lasting about 5-60 minutes).
A meta-analysis (5 studies, 346 migraine patients) pointed out that oral coenzyme Q10 can reduce the number of days (months) and duration (duration) compared to placebo. However, the severity (severity/day) and frequency (attacks/month) did not change significantly.
*Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 has a positive effect on migraine improvement but is limited by the small sample size, and more large-scale trials are still needed to further verify.
7. Coenzyme Q10 beneficial sarcopenia
Sarcopenia (sarcopenia) is an age-related senile syndrome. The main features are skeletal muscle loss, decreased muscle strength, and decreased physical fitness. It increases the risk of osteoporosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence rate is over 65 years old. Up to 5% to 10%.
The sarcopenia pathogenic factors are related to decreased calorie intake, insufficient muscle blood flow, mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased anabolic steroids and increased proinflammatory cytokines.
In population observation studies, it was found that lower coenzyme Q10/cholesterol ratio and reduced coenzyme Q10 levels can be regarded as important indicators of sarcopenia (the upper body muscle strength, muscle mass, and expiratory flow peaks of related subjects are poor ).
*Conclusion: The low level of Coenzyme Q10 is regarded as one of the indicators of sarcopenia, but more research is needed to confirm whether supplementation can bring benefits.
8. Coenzyme Q10 improves inflammation index
Inflammation is a physiological reaction of biological tissues in the face of injury, pathogen invasion, or irritants, mainly manifested by temperature rise, redness, swelling, and pain caused by increased local blood flow.
The short-term or acute inflammation is a unique protection reflection of the organism, used to eliminate harmful irritants and initiate self-healing mechanisms, but long-term or chronic inflammation is considered to be the main factor leading to a variety of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, chronic Kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer are all related.
A systematic literature review and meta-analysis (including 17 randomized double-blind controlled studies) pointed out that supplemental coenzyme Q10 has significant C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL -6) and the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α).
The underlying mechanism may be related to the coenzyme Q10 capturing free radicals and inhibiting the activation of the nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB).
*Conclusion: Supplementation of Coenzyme Q10 has the effect of reducing a variety of pro-inflammatory hormones, but it is limited by the high heterogeneity between studies, and more evidence needs to be verified.
9. Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for heart failure
Cardiac failure often occurs when the ventricle is unable to pump blood efficiently (systolic dysfunction) and relaxation function is impaired (diastolic dysfunction). Symptoms may include abnormal gasping, fatigue, or swelling of the ankle during exercise or rest.
The causes of heart failure are often related to coronary heart disease, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, aging, and valve abnormalities, but congenital heart disease is the most common.
A meta-analysis of literature (including 14 randomized controlled trials, a total of 2149 heart failure patients) pointed out that the use of coenzyme Q10 in addition to placebo can reduce the mortality rate by 31%, but also improve exercise capacity (but There is no significant difference between left heart ejection fraction/left heart ejection fraction and NYHA classification/NYHA classification).
*Comment: Coenzyme Q10 can reduce the mortality of patients with heart failure and improve exercise ability, but it is limited by possible bias and heterogeneity, which needs to be confirmed by more rigorous and large sample experiments.
10. Coenzyme Q10 benefits male infertility
At present, most of the developed countries are facing serious fertility decline, the reasons are related to complex social and environmental factors, including economic development, environmental pollution, and climate warming.
Age is also one of the causes of infertility. According to a census, men’s chances of getting their partners pregnant after 40 years of age will be reduced by 30% (compared to 30 years of age).
A meta-analysis of literature (including 3 studies with a total of 296 participants) pointed out that although oral coenzyme q10 (CoQ10) can increase sperm concentration and motility, its effect on increasing the rate of live births or pregnancy is still unknown.
*Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 can improve the related conventional semen parameters, but there is no evidence to prove that it can increase the chance of pregnancy, which needs to be verified by other experiments.
11. Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for hypertension
Essential hypertension is the most common blood pressure disease (approximately 90% to 95%). Although there is no direct cause of the disease, it is related to multiple life factors, such as sedentary, stress, visceral obesity, overweight, alcohol intake, and aging …Wait.
Coenzyme Q10 is considered beneficial for blood pressure control due to its anti-oxidant properties, improving vascular endothelial function, reducing peripheral resistance, and inhibiting the production of peroxide.
A Cochrane Review (including 2 randomized controlled studies) pointed out that oral coenzyme Q10 did not produce a clinically significant blood pressure-lowering effect compared to placebo (systolic blood pressure drop 3.68 mm, diastolic blood pressure drop 2.03 mm Hg).
*Conclusion: Although Coenzyme Q10 has the effect of lowering blood pressure, it does not reach the clinically significant standard and needs to be further verified by more large-scale controlled studies.
12. Coenzyme Q10 benefits polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (polycystic ovary syndrome) is the most common endocrine disease in women of childbearing age, with a prevalence rate of about 5-21%.
Patients often have symptoms such as reproductive dysfunction (hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, ovulation arrest, infertility, menstrual disorders), abnormal metabolic systems (obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease), and mood disorders.
It is also found clinically that more than half of patients will develop hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia, which greatly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
A double-blind controlled study found (12 weeks, 60 women with polycystic ovary syndrome), supplemented with CoQ10 (100 mg daily) can help improve blood glucose metabolism (fasting blood glucose and insulin-related values), total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol values may have a beneficial effect on patients.
*Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 may have a positive effect on improving polycystic ovary syndrome, which needs to be further verified by more large-scale controlled studies.
13. Coenzyme Q10 improves Parkinson’s disease
Parkinson’s disease is caused by the degradation of the substantia nigra striatum associated with the neurotransmitter: dopamine, which makes it difficult to communicate the brain’s commands, and then develops motor dysfunction, but the brain’s memory and cognitive function can be normal Works.
Although Parkinson’s disease does not necessarily evolve into dementia, 61% of patients will experience mental symptoms, including depression, anxiety, hallucinations, and sleep disturbances.
Related research indicates that patients with Parkinson’s disease are about 4 to 5 times more likely to lack coenzyme Q10 than normal people.
However, as of now, a systematic review (including 5 randomized controlled trials, a total of 981 participants with Parkinson’s disease) and meta-analysis found that supplementing with CoQ10 did not help patients Come to any benefit or slow down the functional degradation.
*Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 does not significantly help to improve Parkinson’s disease.
Are there any side effects of coenzyme Q10?
It is safe for most adults to take Coenzyme Q10 by mouth, at doses up to 3000 mg per day (Note 20) for 8 months; 1200 mg per day for 16 months (Note 21); 600 mg per day for 30 Month (Note 22), no obvious side effects were reported.
The reported minor side effects include stomach upset, an allergic rash, loss of appetite, nausea, heartburn, vomiting, insomnia, fatigue, dizziness, light sensitivity, irritability, and diarrhea (especially at a daily dose of 200 mg Under the circumstances).
1. During pregnancy, it is safe to start taking Coenzyme Q10 after about 20 weeks of pregnancy; however, the safety of lactation is unknown, so it is recommended not to use it.
2. Do not use with chemotherapeutic drugs: Alkylating agents, coenzyme q10 may reduce the effectiveness of these drugs, related drugs are: busulfan, carboplatin, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine., thiotepa.
3. Coenzyme Q10 may have a blood pressure-lowering effect, so patients with low blood pressure or those taking antihypertensive drugs should use it with caution. Related drugs are captopril, enalapril, losartan, valsartan, diltiazem, Amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide.
4. Stop using it two weeks before the scheduled surgery, because CoQ10 may affect blood pressure control during and after surgery.
5. Do not use in combination with the anticoagulant Warfarin, because coenzyme q10 helps coagulation if used together will reduce the effectiveness of the drug if you need to use warfarin and coenzyme Q10 at the same time, be sure to regular blood tests to assess the clotting time, especially the head Two weeks.
6. Taking it before bed may cause insomnia, so it is best to take it in the morning or afternoon.
How to take Coenzyme Q10? What is the dosage?
The standard dose of CoQ10 varies from 90 mg to 200 mg per day, and the needs may vary depending on the person being treated and the situation, and some studies have even used higher doses.
Because CoQ10 is a fat-soluble compound, its absorption is slow and limited when used on an empty stomach. Therefore, it is recommended to take with meals to accelerate absorption.
It was found in the experiment that if ingested with fatty foods, intestinal absorption can be accelerated 3 times.
What dosage forms of Coenzyme Q10?
In the human body, CoQ10 has two different forms, namely reduced form ubiquinol and oxidized form ubiquinone, ubiquinol accounts for 90% of CoQ10 in the blood.
Both of these forms are helpful in increasing the circulating level of CoQ10 in the body.
In a study comparing the two forms, the plasma concentration of ubiquinol increased by 4.77 times after 4 weeks of use, compared with 2.77 times of ubiquinone, which shows that the bioavailability of ubiquinol is significantly higher (about 1.72 times higher, However, relative supplements are also more expensive).
Where to buy the most people recommended high-quality coenzyme Q10?
In recent years, food safety problems in various countries have exploded, and it is not healthy but black-hearted products that everyone spends on. Therefore, European and American products with relatively strict quality control have become popular products.
And iHerb.com is a large-scale medical cosmetics e-commerce company in the United States. It has a high satisfaction rate of 97% in the evaluation of Google customers. It provides global home delivery so that you can buy it without risking buying fakes through purchasing high-quality health products.